Type 1 diabetes: which usually starts in childhood, is a process where the pancreas stops making insulin altogether. It is often called insulin-dependent diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes the cells in the pancreas that make insulin are somehow destroyed, causing a severe lack of insulin. This is thought to be the result of an autoimmune reaction of the body that attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas. Normal medical explanations for what causes this include infection; exposure to food-borne chemical toxins; and exposure as a very young infant to cow’s milk, where an as yet unidentified component of this triggers the autoimmune reaction in the body. The autoimmune process results in the circulation of antibodies that cause beta-cell destruction (the body fighting what it now considers foreign to itself). It is known that certain drugs, such as alloxan, streptozocin, and thiazide diuretics, are toxic to the beta cells of the pancreas and can cause diabetes, but toxic causes have until now been generally ignored. Vaccines have also been implicated in this scenario.